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The structure of the 88 metre tall Passive House building "Bolueta" in Bilbao, Spain, will be completed within a few weeks. The architects of both these buildings will attend the 21st International Passive House Conference in April in Vienna to report on their exciting projects. It's all about energy efficient construction now and in the future.

Vienna has committed itself to the Passive House Standard for many years, whether for kindergartens, student dorms, apartment buildings or offices. The conference programme will be rounded off with numerous workshops and excursions. Pioneer project upgraded to Passive House Plus The world's first Passive House building has increased its already high energy efficiency level and now relies on renewable energy. About a year ago, a photovoltaic system was installed on the roof of a row house built in in Darmstadt. Since then, this pioneering Passive House project has been producing its own electricity, thus fulfilling the criteria of a Passive House Plus building.

The official certificate was recently issued. Step-by-step towards EnerPHit Many home and building owners carry out renovations in a step-by-step manner. To avoid unnecessary additional costs, all planned measures for energy retrofits should be coordinated with each other before the first step is implemented. The previous clinic will be replaced by a new Passive House building with ten operating theatres and beds planned over six floors.

The Passive House Institute has provided comprehensive support throughout the planning phase and will continue to do so during the building's construction. The date and venue for the Conference have now been confirmed: experts in energy efficient construction will convene at the Messe Wien Congress Centre on the 28th and 29th April The theme for the 21st Conference will be "Passive House for all".

Smiling faces in Aberdeen The new Rocking Horse Nursery of the Scottish University of Aberdeen brings many happy faces to the children and their teachers. They attribute this as much to the comfortable indoor climate as to the constantly available fresh air.

The nursery is the first building in Aberdeen built to the Passive House Standard. Wolfgang Feist, recently presented the certificate to the developers and their team. From both the outside and inside, the single-storey nursery is a real eyecatcher with its wooden facade. Winters with long nights are common in Aberdeen.

Wolfgang Feist. Photos: Graeme MacDonald. And the city now wants to make their buildings among the most efficient in the country. This is the backdrop against which the North American Passive House Network is hosting their conference on decarbonizing the built environment. The Passive House Standard combines maximum efficiency with optimal comfort. How this works, was demonstrated by experts from all over the world on 22 and 23 April during the International Passive House Conference in Darmstadt.

This event also marked an anniversary: 25 years ago, the world's first Passive House building was built just a few kilometres away from the congress centre — and a brand new study, presented at the Conference, proves the sustainability of the concept. Whether just browsing or to find a specific product — a new online database provides a detailed overview of components for Passive House construction. All of the products, which have been independently tested and certified by the Passive House Institute with reference to their energy-relevant qualities, are listed together with relevant technical information; triple-glazed windows and ventilation systems with heat recovery as well as insulation systems and balcony connections, to name a few.

How does a Passive House work? Which requirements exist with regard to components, planning, design, and project implementation? What is it like to live in a Passive House, what has already been built, and why are Passive Houses such an attractive investment? In order to competently answer such questions, the International Passive House Association iPHA has created the informational brochure "Active for more comfort".

A new edition of this brochure is now available as an online flipbook. With a tablet at home or with a smartphone during the daily commute — a new e-learning program is making basic Passive House training more comfortable than ever before. The video-based online modules are equally suitable as an introduction for laypersons and as preparatory material for courses aimed at certification as a Passive House Designer or Consultant.

The individual chapters deal with general questions as well as with specific examples of planning for building services systems and the building envelope. The tried and tested PHPP tool for designing energy efficient buildings is available in a brand-new version. This upgrade not only allows reliable calculation of the energy demand in accordance with internationally applicable criteria. It takes into account energy generation on or near the building as well.

The new features also include innovative options, for example for heat recovery from shower water or for profitability calculations. The practical use of the tool is facilitated by means of automatic verification and plausibility checks. The winners of the Component Award for ventilation solutions in residential buildings have been selected. The first prize goes to a concept by the Austrian manufacturer Pichler. A joint second prize will be granted to Vaventis and Michael Tribus Architecture. The approaches for building retrofits selected by a jury are not only characterised by a high level of energy efficiency, but also by their economic viability.

The result is a 90 percent reduced heating demand and perceptibly increased comfort due to high indoor air quality. The building thus meets with the criteria for the Passive House Standard. Details were discussed during excursions as part of the International Passive House Conference One of the world's most sustainable buildings stands in Bavaria: as the first of its kind, a mixed residential and commercial project in the town of Kaufbeuren has met the criteria for a Passive House Premium certification.

The doors of this new building were open to the public on 14 and 15 November within the framework of the international Passive House Days A completely modernized university building in Innsbruck, Austria demonstrates the energy saving potential available with refurbishments. The project thus meets the criteria of the EnerPHit Standard for retrofits with Passive House components — this standard, introduced by the Passive House Institute, is specially tailored to the particularities of retrofit projects.

The certificate was presented at the official reopening. Passive House efficiency is a model for the future also for indoor swimming pools. This is demonstrated in a new report on the energy consumption in the "Bambados" in Germany. The running costs for this leisure pool are far below average. The concept is thus successfully providing an opportunity for financial savings, especially relevant for municipalities with limited budgets. The full report is now available online in German. The Passive House district of Bahnstadt in Heidelberg Germany has passed the test: according to a report on recent measurements, the values being strived for in relation to energy efficiency were met in full.

The statistically high number of projects built by different property developers and architects convincingly shows that a successful large- scale implementation of the Passive House Standard is possible. A new book showcasing the winners and finalists of the international "Passive House Award" shows that energy efficient construction is not only profitable, it is also an enrichment for architecture.


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The book is available in a bound version and in digital form as an online flipbook. All of the award-winning buildings are presented with many photographs and illustrations. Technical details which are relevant for the energy balance are also explained in detail. In addition to the book, there is a poster exhibition on the Award.

The combination of energy efficiency and renewables is the future-proof solution for all buildings, including multi-storey projects — this is demonstrated with a new build in Innsbruck, Austria: the apartment complex is the first of its kind to be certified as a Passive House Plus building. This concept is not just based on a theoretical annual energy balance, which is misleading in practice; instead, the actual amount of regionally and seasonally available renewable energy is taken into account. Passive House planning has never been more convenient.

The new designPH, a 3D model interface developed by the Passive House Institute, allows for graphic input of energy related design data. Education expenditures : This entry provides the public expenditure on education as a percent of GDP. School life expectancy primary to tertiary education : School life expectancy SLE is the total number of years of schooling primary to tertiary that a child can expect to receive, assuming that the probability of his or her being enrolled in school at any particular future age is equal to the current enrollment ratio at that age.

Caution must be maintained when utilizing this indicator in international comparisons. For example, a year or grade completed in one country is not necessarily the same in terms of educational content or qualit. Unemployment, youth ages : This entry gives the percent of the total labor force ages unemployed during a specified year. Government :: Germany. Country name : This entry includes all forms of the country's name approved by the US Board on Geographic Names Italy is used as an example : conventional long form Italian Republic , conventional short form Italy , local long form Repubblica Italiana , local short form Italia , former Kingdom of Italy , as well as the abbreviation.

Also see the Terminology note. Government type : This entry gives the basic form of government. Definitions of the major governmental terms are as follows. Note that for some countries more than one definition applies. Anarchy - a condition of lawlessness or political disorder brought about by the absence of governmental authority. Authoritarian - a form of government in whic.

Capital : This entry gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time UTC and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time DST. Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones. Administrative divisions : This entry generally gives the numbers, designatory terms, and first-order administrative divisions as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names BGN. Changes that have been reported but not yet acted on by the BGN are noted.

Geographic names conform to spellings approved by the BGN with the exception of the omission of diacritical marks and special characters. Independence : For most countries, this entry gives the date that sovereignty was achieved and from which nation, empire, or trusteeship. For the other countries, the date given may not represent "independence" in the strict sense, but rather some significant nationhood event such as the traditional founding date or the date of unification, federation, confederation, establishment, fundamental change in the form of government, or state succession.

For a number of countries, the establishment of statehood. National holiday : This entry gives the primary national day of celebration - usually independence day. German Unity Day, 3 October The history subfield includes the dates of previous constitutions and the main steps and dates in formulating and implementing the latest constitution. Legal system : This entry provides the description of a country's legal system. A statement on judicial review of legislative acts is also included for a number of countries.

The legal systems of nearly all countries are generally modeled upon elements of five main types: civil law including French law, the Napoleonic Code, Roman law, Roman-Dutch law, and Spanish law ; common law including United State law ; customary law; mixed or pluralistic law; and religious law including Islamic law.

An addition. Citizenship : This entry provides information related to the acquisition and exercise of citizenship; it includes four subfields: citizenship by birth describes the acquisition of citizenship based on place of birth, known as Jus soli, regardless of the citizenship of parents. Suffrage : This entry gives the age at enfranchisement and whether the right to vote is universal or restricted.

Chief of state includes the name, title, and beginning date in office of the titular leader of the country who represents the state at official and ceremonial functions but may not be involved with the day-to-day activities of the government. Head of government includes the name, title of the top executive designated to manage the executive branch of the government, a.

Legislative branch : This entry has three subfields. The description subfield provides the legislative structure unicameral — single house; bicameral — an upper and a lower house ; formal name s ; number of member seats; types of constituencies or voting districts single seat, multi-seat, nationwide ; electoral voting system s ; and member term of office. The elections subfield includes the dates of the last election and next election. Judicial branch : This entry includes three subfields. The highest court s subfield includes the name s of a country's highest level court s , the number and titles of the judges, and the types of cases heard by the court, which commonly are based on civil, criminal, administrative, and constitutional law.

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A number of countries have separate constitutional courts. The judge selection and term of office subfield includes the organizations and associated officials responsible for nominating and appointing j. Political parties and leaders : This entry includes a listing of significant political parties, coalitions, and electoral lists as of each country's last legislative election, unless otherwise noted. International organization participation : This entry lists in alphabetical order by abbreviation those international organizations in which the subject country is a member or participates in some other way.

Diplomatic representation in the US : This entry includes the chief of mission, chancery address, telephone, FAX, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.

Such ambassadors fulfill all diplomatic functions except meeting with or appearing at functions attended by the president until such time as they formally present their credentials at a White Hou. FAX: [1] Diplomatic representation from the US : This entry includes the chief of mission, embassy address, mailing address, telephone number, FAX number, branch office locations, consulate general locations, and consulate locations. FAX: [49] 30 Flag description : This entry provides a written flag description produced from actual flags or the best information available at the time the entry was written.

The flags of independent states are used by their dependencies unless there is an officially recognized local flag.

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Some disputed and other areas do not have flags. National symbol s : A national symbol is a faunal, floral, or other abstract representation - or some distinctive object - that over time has come to be closely identified with a country or entity. Not all countries have national symbols; a few countries have more than one.

National anthem : A generally patriotic musical composition - usually in the form of a song or hymn of praise - that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, or struggles of a nation or its people. National anthems can be officially recognized as a national song by a country's constitution or by an enacted law, or simply by tradition.

Although most anthems contain lyrics, some do not. Economy :: Germany. Economy - overview : This entry briefly describes the type of economy, including the degree of market orientation, the level of economic development, the most important natural resources, and the unique areas of specialization. It also characterizes major economic events and policy changes in the most recent 12 months and may include a statement about one or two key future macroeconomic trends. GDP purchasing power parity : This entry gives the gross domestic product GDP or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year.

A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity PPP exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States in the year noted. This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries. The measur. GDP official exchange rate : This entry gives the gross domestic product GDP or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year.

The measure is simple to compute and gives a precise measure of the value of output. Many economists prefer this measure when gauging the economic power an economy maintains vis-. GDP - real growth rate : This entry gives GDP growth on an annual basis adjusted for inflation and expressed as a percent. The growth rates are year-over-year, and not compounded. Gross national saving : Gross national saving is derived by deducting final consumption expenditure household plus government from Gross national disposable income, and consists of personal saving, plus business saving the sum of the capital consumption allowance and retained business profits , plus government saving the excess of tax revenues over expenditures , but excludes foreign saving the excess of imports of goods and services over exports.

The figures are presented as a percent of GDP. A negative. GDP - composition, by end use : This entry shows who does the spending in an economy: consumers, businesses, government, and foreigners. The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total percent of GDP if the data are complete. GDP - composition, by sector of origin : This entry shows where production takes place in an economy.

The distribution gives the percentage contribution of agriculture, industry, and services to total GDP, and will total percent of GDP if the data are complete. Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other private economic activities that do not prod. Agriculture - products : This entry is an ordered listing of major crops and products starting with the most important.

Industries : This entry provides a rank ordering of industries starting with the largest by value of annual output. Industrial production growth rate : This entry gives the annual percentage increase in industrial production includes manufacturing, mining, and construction. Labor force : This entry contains the total labor force figure. Labor force - by occupation : This entry lists the percentage distribution of the labor force by sector of occupation. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other economic activities that do not produce material goods.

The distribution will total less than percent if the data are incomplete and may range from percent due to rounding. Unemployment rate : This entry contains the percent of the labor force that is without jobs. Substantial underemployment might be noted. Population below poverty line : National estimates of the percentage of the population falling below the poverty line are based on surveys of sub-groups, with the results weighted by the number of people in each group.

Definitions of poverty vary considerably among nations. For example, rich nations generally employ more generous standards of poverty than poor nations. Household income or consumption by percentage share : Data on household income or consumption come from household surveys, the results adjusted for household size. Nations use different standards and procedures in collecting and adjusting the data. Surveys based on income will normally show a more unequal distribution than surveys based on consumption.

The quality of surveys is improving with time, yet caution is still necessary in making inter-country comparisons.

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Distribution of family income - Gini index : This index measures the degree of inequality in the distribution of family income in a country. The index is calculated from the Lorenz curve, in which cumulative family income is plotted against the number of families arranged from the poorest to the richest. The index is the ratio of a the area between a country's Lorenz curve and the 45 degree helping line to b the entire triangular area under the 45 degree line. The more nearly equal a country's income distribution, the closer its. Budget : This entry includes revenues, expenditures, and capital expenditures.

These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i. Taxes and other revenues : This entry records total taxes and other revenues received by the national government during the time period indicated, expressed as a percent of GDP. Taxes include personal and corporate income taxes, value added taxes, excise taxes, and tariffs.

Other revenues include social contributions - such as payments for social security and hospital insurance - grants, and net revenues from public enterprises. Normalizing the data, by dividing total revenues by GDP, enables easy comparisons acr. Normalizing the data, by dividing the budget balance by GDP, enables easy comparisons across countries and indicates whether a national government saves or borrows money. Countries with high budget deficits relat. Public debt : This entry records the cumulative total of all government borrowings less repayments that are denominated in a country's home currency.

Public debt should not be confused with external debt, which reflects the foreign currency liabilities of both the private and public sector and must be financed out of foreign exchange earnings. Fiscal year : This entry identifies the beginning and ending months for a country's accounting period of 12 months, which often is the calendar year but which may begin in any month. All yearly references are for the calendar year CY unless indicated as a noncalendar fiscal year FY.

Inflation rate consumer prices : This entry furnishes the annual percent change in consumer prices compared with the previous year's consumer prices. Central bank discount rate : This entry provides the annualized interest rate a country's central bank charges commercial, depository banks for loans to meet temporary shortages of funds. Commercial bank prime lending rate : This entry provides a simple average of annualized interest rates commercial banks charge on new loans, denominated in the national currency, to their most credit-worthy customers. Stock of narrow money : This entry, also known as "M1," comprises the total quantity of currency in circulation notes and coins plus demand deposits denominated in the national currency held by nonbank financial institutions, state and local governments, nonfinancial public enterprises, and the private sector of the economy, measured at a specific point in time.

National currency units have been converted to US dollars at the closing exchange rate for the date of the information. Because of exchange rate moveme. Stock of broad money : This entry covers all of "Narrow money," plus the total quantity of time and savings deposits, credit union deposits, institutional money market funds, short-term repurchase agreements between the central bank and commercial deposit banks, and other large liquid assets held by nonbank financial institutions, state and local governments, nonfinancial public enterprises, and the private sector of the economy.

National currency units have been converted to US dollars at the closing exchange r. Stock of domestic credit : This entry is the total quantity of credit, denominated in the domestic currency, provided by financial institutions to the central bank, state and local governments, public non-financial corporations, and the private sector. The national currency units have been converted to US dollars at the closing exchange rate on the date of the information.

Market value of publicly traded shares : This entry gives the value of shares issued by publicly traded companies at a price determined in the national stock markets on the final day of the period indicated. It is simply the latest price per share multiplied by the total number of outstanding shares, cumulated over all companies listed on the particular exchange. Current account balance : This entry records a country's net trade in goods and services, plus net earnings from rents, interest, profits, and dividends, and net transfer payments such as pension funds and worker remittances to and from the rest of the world during the period specified.

Exports : This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise exports on an f. Exports - partners : This entry provides a rank ordering of trading partners starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value. Exports - commodities : This entry provides a listing of the highest-valued exported products; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value. Imports : This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise imports on a c.

Imports - commodities : This entry provides a listing of the highest-valued imported products; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value. Imports - partners : This entry provides a rank ordering of trading partners starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value. Netherlands Reserves of foreign exchange and gold : This entry gives the dollar value for the stock of all financial assets that are available to the central monetary authority for use in meeting a country's balance of payments needs as of the end-date of the period specified.

This category includes not only foreign currency and gold, but also a country's holdings of Special Drawing Rights in the International Monetary Fund, and its reserve position in the Fund. Debt - external : This entry gives the total public and private debt owed to nonresidents repayable in internationally accepted currencies, goods, or services. Stock of direct foreign investment - at home : This entry gives the cumulative US dollar value of all investments in the home country made directly by residents - primarily companies - of other countries as of the end of the time period indicated.

Direct investment excludes investment through purchase of shares. Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad : This entry gives the cumulative US dollar value of all investments in foreign countries made directly by residents - primarily companies - of the home country, as of the end of the time period indicated.

Exchange rates : This entry provides the average annual price of a country's monetary unit for the time period specified, expressed in units of local currency per US dollar, as determined by international market forces or by official fiat. The International Organization for Standardization ISO alphabetic currency code for the national medium of exchange is presented in parenthesis.

Closing daily exchange rates are not presented in The World Factbook, but are used to convert stock values - e. Energy :: Germany. Electricity access : This entry provides information on access to electricity. Electrification data — collected from industry reports, national surveys, and international sources — consists of four subfields.

Population without electricity provides an estimate of the number of citizens that do not have access to electricity. Electricity - production : This entry is the annual electricity generated expressed in kilowatt-hours. Electricity - consumption : This entry consists of total electricity generated annually plus imports and minus exports, expressed in kilowatt-hours. Electricity - exports : This entry is the total exported electricity in kilowatt-hours. Electricity - imports : This entry is the total imported electricity in kilowatt-hours.

Electricity - installed generating capacity : This entry is the total capacity of currently installed generators, expressed in kilowatts kW , to produce electricity. A kilowatt kW generator will produce 10 kilowatt hours kWh of electricity, if it runs continuously for one hour. Electricity - from fossil fuels : This entry measures the capacity of plants that generate electricity by burning fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum products, and natural gas , expressed as a share of the country's total generating capacity.

Electricity - from nuclear fuels : This entry measures the capacity of plants that generate electricity through radioactive decay of nuclear fuel, expressed as a share of the country's total generating capacity. Electricity - from hydroelectric plants : This entry measures the capacity of plants that generate electricity by water-driven turbines, expressed as a share of the country's total generating capacity. Electricity - from other renewable sources : This entry measures the capacity of plants that generate electricity by using renewable energy sources other than hydroelectric including, for example, wind, waves, solar, and geothermal , expressed as a share of the country's total generating capacity.

Crude oil - proved reserves : This entry is the stock of proved reserves of crude oil, in barrels bbl. Proved reserves are those quantities of petroleum which, by analysis of geological and engineering data, can be estimated with a high degree of confidence to be commercially recoverable from a given date forward, from known reservoirs and under current economic conditions.

Natural gas - production : This entry is the total natural gas produced in cubic meters cu m. Natural gas - consumption : This entry is the total natural gas consumed in cubic meters cu m. Natural gas - exports : This entry is the total natural gas exported in cubic meters cu m. Natural gas - imports : This entry is the total natural gas imported in cubic meters cu m. Natural gas - proved reserves : This entry is the stock of proved reserves of natural gas in cubic meters cu m.

Proved reserves are those quantities of natural gas, which, by analysis of geological and engineering data, can be estimated with a high degree of confidence to be commercially recoverable from a given date forward, from known reservoirs and under current economic conditions. Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy : This entry is the total amount of carbon dioxide, measured in metric tons, released by burning fossil fuels in the process of producing and consuming energy. Communications :: Germany. Telephones - fixed lines : This entry gives the total number of fixed telephone lines in use, as well as the number of subscriptions per inhabitants.

Telephones - mobile cellular : This entry gives the total number of mobile cellular telephone subscribers, as well as the number of subscriptions per inhabitants. Note that because of the ubiquity of mobile phone use in developed countries, the number of subscriptions per inhabitants can exceed Telephone system : This entry includes a brief general assessment of the system with details on the domestic and international components. CB - citizen's band mobile radio communications. Cellular telephone system - the telephones in this system are radio transceivers, with each instrument having its o.


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  8. Broadcast media : This entry provides information on the approximate number of public and private TV and radio stations in a country, as well as basic information on the availability of satellite and cable TV services. Internet users : This entry gives the total number of individuals within a country who can access the Internet at home, via any device type computer or mobile and connection. The percent of population with Internet access i. Statistics vary from country to country and may include users who access the Internet at least several times a week to those who access it only once within a period of several months.

    Broadband - fixed subscriptions : This entry gives the total number of fixed-broadband subscriptions, as well as the number of subscriptions per inhabitants. Fixed broadband is a physical wired connection to the Internet e. Transportation :: Germany. Endovascular procedures tend to dominate in peripheral revascularization and treatment of aortic aneurysms in older patients, while carotid revascularization and peripheral embolectomy continue to be predominantly performed using open surgery procedures.

    Eckstein state that there are no conflicts of interest. PD Dr. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.

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    Published online Oct Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author s and the source are credited.

    This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Objectives This article describes the structure of inpatient care and the provision of vascular treatment as well as age- and gender-specific hospital incidence rates of vascular diseases in Germany between and Results Since , the incidence of non-cardiac vascular diseases has increased and showed a significant dependency on sex and age.

    Conclusions Since , the increasing need for vascular services for patients has been met by continuously growing structures for the provision of vascular surgical treatment; however, the suitability and efficiency of provision of vascular services could only be assessed in an appropriate way by using more differentiated and disaggregated data. Additional material available online Additional information is available in the online version of this article doi Keywords: Vascular epidemiology, Provision of vascular services, Administrative incidence, Vascular surgery, Vascular medicine.

    Zusammenfassung Hintergrund In Deutschland sind ca. Methods The number of departments of vascular surgery in German hospitals, the number of beds therein, the number of hospitals employing specialists in vascular surgery, and the number of full-time vascular surgeons were extracted from the basic data of German hospitals from the Federal Statistical Office [ 5 ], as of 31 December Results Hospitals and physicians in vascular surgery Fig. Open in a separate window.

    Vascular principal diagnoses—age- and sex-specific hospital incidence rates In addition to the age-standardized presentation Fig. Selected treatment procedures In general, most procedures were performed on patients between 70 and 75 years; women tended to be somewhat older Fig.

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    Conclusion The specialty of vascular surgery has continued to grow over the past 20 years. Compliance with ethical guidelines Conflict of interest A. This article does not contain studies on humans or animals. References 1. Deutsches Statistisches Bundesamt Todesursachenstatistik Accessed 5 Jan.

    Kreienbrock L, Schach S. Epidemiologische Methoden. Department of Health Statistics and Information Systems. WHO methods and data sources for global burden of disease estimates — Geneva: World Health Organization, Accessed 10 Feb. Deutsches Statistisches Bundesamt. Tiefgegliederte Diagnosedaten der Krankenhauspatientinnen und —patienten.

    Accessed 17 Aug Accessed 14 Aug. Fallpauschalenbezogene Krankenhausstatistik. Eckstein H-H, Knipfer E. Support Center Support Center.