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Have fun! Kroll has weighed in on the CWD situation in Texas. According to Dr. Like everyone, Doc has his heros! It was great to spend time with men and women who created the first magazine devoted solely to deer hunting in Horace and Doc have also been friends for almost 40 years. The new Dr. Deer Pears we developed continue to amaze us! Most of our two year old trees have fruit on them this year.

The only problem we have encountered so far is some managers planted them too early in New York and a cold snap of less than 20 degrees killed a portion. ALWAYS either plant fruit trees in the Spring after all danger of heavy frost is over, or better yet, in the early Fall to allow time for them to form roots. Deer Pears come in two forms -- bare rooted or potted.

Bare root trees will form roots after they are planted and potted when they are placed in the pots. We now are looking at a new plum, but will not complete our evaluations until Stay tuned! The photos below show properly planted Dr. Deer Pears in April left and in July right. Note the protective tubes and wire protectors on each.

We spray around our trees in Spring with glyphosate to eliminate weed oompetition, and put down a 4 ft X 4ft ground cloth around each tree. You will be amazed how this helps. Although these trees are "technically" two years old, they were produced from buds from the only tree in existence, which is 15 years old. That is why they fruit quickly. Since founding by these men, the organization continues to grow, and if you are interested in trophy deer, this is an organization for you.

Kroll, Jerry Johnston and the late Gene Riser co-founded one of the largest trophy deer management organizations, the Texas Deer Association, back in Since then, the TDA has been a strong voice for intensive deer management, not only for Texans but anyone interested in producing better bucks. Doc was surprised by Karl during one of Doc's seminars.

  • Wild Stories.
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It is extremely rare when Dr. Deer endorses any product. Each product or service must pass an independent test for quality, reliability and service. Only after passing our research and testing are products given the coveted Dr. Deer Seal of Approval. So, we have added a new section Product Endorsements to present why we have endorsed new products. We have added yet more videos to our archives for you to enjoy. Be sure to check them out.

Deer's Member's Reading Room. It recently was brought to our attention that a deer hunting web site Ohioprobucks. They clearly state that the deer in the photograph are from their hunting property. We have notified them of this unethical activity and demanded they remove the photos. What that says about Ohio Pro Bucks Hunting can be your own conclusion. Integrity means everything to Dr. Deer; our name is the most valuable thing we have. Kroll is noted for being a pioneer in white-tailed deer biology and management. We just posted click here a copy of an article he wrote back in about his landmark patterning research.

We thought you might like to read it, although little has changed since that time. Your browse plant of the week is this one. What is it and what is the whitetail preference. The answer will be posted next week. We just uploaded dozens of new videos in both the public and member's sections of the site! Be sure to check out Educational Videos and Ask Dr. More coming, we are on a roll.

Each week, we receive hundreds of inquiries through the Contact Us section of the website. We are continuously amazed by the folks who are surprised we actually answer them! Each week, we will feature the answers to questions, both on the public and member's sections of the site. Who knows? Your question may be featured! Of course, we will keep your name anonymous, just using your first name and the state you live in.

There is new hope for truly managing CWD in whitetails. Kroll recently published an update on the latest advances in the Journal of the Texas Trophy Hunters. Click here to read the article in Dr. Deer's Reading Room. It was only five years ago when Dr. Kroll discovered a strange pear growing on the research facility. Thinking it was just a "wildling," he almost killed the tree with herbicide,but decided to watch it for another year. That single tree turned out to be the parent of the greatest revolution in fruit trees for whitetails! Starting with only a few buds, Dr.

Kroll had them budded to root stock. We were excited that single buds grafted in February grew to 8 feet in height by July! In Fall, , we made our first outplantings of the young trees, and were shocked to see them produce fruit this year! Here are some photos of a properly planted tree discussed later and a closeup of fruit just taken this morning 21 April, We will be offering bare root trees next winter for you to plant, and Dunstan Nursery will also make them available through their outlets.

The real benefit to using Dr. Deer pears is that they have small fruit in clusters and tend to hold onto them well into late fall. We are excited!! Back in , Dr. By , several states have enacted similar restricitons, based on an array of yearling protection strategies. We thought you might enjoy reading this historic document and think about the concept for your area. Click Here. The 10th Annual Dr.

Deer's Whitetail World Field Day March 14th at the Research Facility near Nacogdoches, TX was huge success, with the attendance limit of 50 being reached far in advance of the activity. Attendees were treated to a host of hands-on presentations, ranging from cool and warm season food plots, to use of herbicides to improve whitetail habitat.

In addition, the Dr. Deer Approved and Dr. Deer Preferred product and service providers were in attendance to present the latest technologies in deer management and hunting. This was a special time for all, especially since it marked the inaugural presentation of Rio Grande Outfitters as the first Dr. Deer's Whitetail World franchisee. Owner, Jim Kniestadt is a long time friend of Dr. Kroll and Ben Koerth, and we are proud to have him associated with the Dr.

Deer Brand! Deer's Whitetail World offers only products and services that have earned the Dr. They a host of sheds, many of which were world class, but also found one of the bucks lost during the rut; a fine typical 6 X 5 five year old. We hate to lose any buck, but when one like this is lost, its a shame some lucky hunter particularly a young person missed out on bagging a monster. Yet, we have many more and the loss soon will be replaced with yet another monster buck. Jim and Dr. Deer are partnering on making Wildlife Management News into a full magazine with broad geographic appeal.

So, watch out for an announcement soon. Sal Peretore displays his "trophy" while searching for cast antlers on the Dr. Deer Facility. The rut can be stressful for mature bucks, and we think this five year old died of pneumonia. We are adding new material daily to the Public and Member's Reading Rooms. Check out the material, and don't forget to use the search function for a particular topic. Doc recently completed four years of work on the scents produced by deer and deposited on signposts in staging areas.

Read " Taking Center Stage. As you know, it is rare when Dr. Deer endorses a product, but when we do, you can be sure it IS a quality product. Brian Hicks, owner of TrophyTotes, is a long time associate with the Institute and we love his product! There is not a single soft-sided cooler bag on the market that even comes close to his. One of the greatest issues for any soft-sided cooler bag is leakage; usually because the materials used to line the bag or the way they are joined allows water to leak out. After three years of testing, we have not found the TrophyTotes to leak one drop!

So, we urge you to use this product. You can go online to purchase yours, or soon we will offer them on this site. Click Here to Check Them Out. If you think you cannot produce food plots and supplemental foods in areas with hard winters, we think you will change your mind after reading this installment. Higginbotham is a unique individual, in that he is both an expert on warm water fisheries management and wildlife management; particularly in food plots and wild hogs.

The new fisheries course should be available next month, along with his new module: Biology and Management of Wild Hogs in a Whitetail World. We will announce the availability of his courses as soon as they are completed. Folks are signing up fast, and there are only 50 spots open this year, so don't delay! This year promises to be better than ever, with experts such as Dr. Billy Higginbotham, Dr. Larry Redmon and Dr. Steve Harrison presenting the latest information on things that really work in managing deer on YOUR property. Click here to register for the day.

Each year, Dr. Kroll conducts a live broadcast of the annual deer necropsy health check at Turtle Lake Club, Hillman, Michigan. Those who tune in get to see examples of the various metrics we use to manage deer herds; plus diseases and parasites. This year, you are invited to attend the necropsy, help out, and learn a great deal about deer anatomy.

The necropsy generally is conducted on the second Saturday of February, but the date is not firm right now. We are only taking 5 individuals for this, and there will be a charge to handle housing, transportation and meals. Attendees will arrive on Friday at Alpena Airport or drive in, arriving after lunch. We will have a social held at a nearby facility, followed by the necropsy on Saturday from 8 am to 5 pm. Attendees can leave any time after noon on Saturday or Sunday morning. Of course, if you cannot attend, you always can watch our Internet broadcast.

Members will be given preference and a discount. Larry is a great hunter and really manages the farms he owns or leases around Caldwell County. He only takes a few hunters to offset his costs, so if you are lucky enough to hunt with Larry, you have an excellent chance to harvest a good specimen of Western Kentucky whitetails.

Go to Dr. Deer Facebook page to see what happened! We are proud to announce the latest addition of Wildlife Management News is now available to members, Click Here. This is the best publication for serious deer managers and enthusiasts available! Kroll even writes a column for the eNewsletter, which includes products endorsed as a Dr. Deer Certified Product. Only products tested by the Institute and proven to work, or those whose development included collaboration with Dr. Deer achieve this high award! Wildife Management News is one of these products or services.

Jim Holbert is a man of utmost integrity and dedicated to the sound management and hunting ethics of whitetails; and, we wholeheartedly endorse the newsletter. You can access back issues of Wildlife Management News in Dr. Enjoy and learn! Learn about a day in the life of a buck. If you have not joined Whitetail Slam or enterred your bucks, Click Here to find out more. We have added dozens of articles and media to both the public and membership portions of the Dr.

Deer Website! Over the next few weeks, you will find even more material. Be sure to use the search function to aid you in finding out what Dr. Deer has said or written about a host of topics. Kroll recently released a white paper on what we really know about CWD. Click Here to read it. Whether or not spiked antlered yearlngs are genetically inferior has sparked debate among hunters and biologists for generations. Kroll and Ben Koerth completed and published the most comprehensive study ever done on the subject.

Click here to see their work. In , Dr. Well, over a decade later, deer are in high numbers near Mount Horeb, Wisconsin; and elk populations flourish in the epicenter of the CWD area in Colorado. Now, scientists have published an article click here that validates Dr. Kroll's claim. Kroll, "i just applied good old fashioned common sense, plus what I was taught in school about natural selection. First, CWD does not become clinical until later in life, long after does or cows have produced numerous offspring. Second, there is a resistant gene in cervids, which extends the life of exposed animals.

This gives the ones with the resistant gene a selective advantage over those lacking it, slowing increasing the percentage of the population with resistance. Wyoming scientists have found the same thing in their simulation studies. Doc is a firm supporter of science, but it is "good" science he prefers to see being practiced! The new season of Whitetail Slam aired its first episode of the season, with wonderful comments from viewers. The show is aired twice each week, with prime time showing at pm EDT on Sundays. Kroll, "working with men like Tom Miranda is a real pleasure.

Watch and we think you will agree. The purpose of establishing the Slam is to bring hunters to a whole new concept in trophy hunting. It is NOT about Boone-and-Crockett or Pope-and-Young score, but a trophy-class experience, traveling the range of the species meeting new challenges in varying habitats.

We have edited the entire Dr. Deer's Reading Room, Educational Videos for your use. These are searchable by topic or you can just browse through them. They represent the most comprehensive collection on managing the whitetail landscape available. Watching the videos is the next best thing to being there for the day! We feel these alone are worth joining our membership section, with many more materials soon to follow.

Please contact us if you have any questions from these videos, or any other topic for that matter. Visitors to the site continue to be amazed that Dr. Kroll does answer each of them. Kroll and Emilio Paris proudly show off the world class stag Doc harvested after a long stalk with cameraman, Mike Emory. He was hosted by one of South America's best known and successful outfitters, Emilio Paris , who is well known for waterfowl, upland game bird and big game hunting at its finest.

Estancia Pilolil is a huge property nestled among the stepps of the Andes near the Chilean border. The property is incredibly managed as a wildlife paradise. One valley had so many stags congregating for the roar that Doc and Emilio renamed it, Stag Valley! Friend, John Butler of Buck Forage Products also took one of the largest stags ever for the Estancia, which should go into the record book. We just uploaded six new videos in Dr. Deer's Public Reading Room from the Dr. Deer's Whitetail World Field Day. Check them out! They cover topics such as electric fencing, dual purpose food plots and Buck Forage Oats.

The Turtle Lake Necropsy live broadcast was a huge success! Now, we are offering the entire day in 11 segments, the first of which is available in Dr. Deer's Public Reading Room. The videos will teach you a great deal about how to determine the health of your herd, as well as some facts you did know about deer. The remaining 10 segments will be available to members on 1 May, A signpost is a special type of rub on which bucks and does deposit scent for communication. It is the "social media" of the deer world! Signpost occur in two places, near sanctuary beds and in staging areas. A staging area can be found adjacent to a doe feeding area, and is characterized by numerous rubs and scrapes.

Bucks come to staging areas just at dark and stay there all night, leaving well before daylight. The scent on signposts comes from a mixture of forehead gland and tarsal gland chemicals, which can be produced and deposited by bucks and does. This slide show from a trail cam placed looking at a signpost from November to April will amaze you, check it out! Bob Wallace of Chestnut Hills Nursery just notified me that his Dunstan Chestnut trees will be available on a first come, first served basis at Walmarts in March.

Get to your nearest store fast, they won't last! Click Here for a listing of stores handling the trees. Aging and Judging Whitetails is an important skill, both for the manager and hunter. But things just got better. James Kroll, known to many as Dr. Austin State University. Today, Dr. Kroll is bringing his knowledge to your computer through a virtual classroom. His lessons on whitetail management are designed to fill a void between the science of managing deer and the mythology of deer hunting that has driven the market place for decades.

Kroll said. Ultimately creating a better herd, a better forest and a better hunter. Kroll and Ben H. Koerth, Whitetail Research Scientist with Dr. Deer, Inc. This program offers courses focusing on the three important aspects of managing the most popular game species in North America, the white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus. Reproductive biology and nutrition are emphasized. The courses include the most critical aspects of wildlife management: people management and economics. Finally, white-tailed deer as with any game species are a crop providing both consumptive and non-consumptive values.

Hunting skills needed for harvesting and photographing deer are the final focus of the program. The final product is certification of competency in all of these skills. A top natural resource management university soon will accredit the program; providing opportunities for course credit. Brad Mitchell of Ranch Remotes visited the Institute's research facility on 4 February, to discuss further testing of his very useful equipment, which can remotely control spin feeders.

Why would you want to do this? The reason is most of the feeders on the market are controlled by a unit that sets the time, date and duration of feed delivery. Brad has a wonderful work-around, using his Ranch Remote device. It simply plugs into existing wiring and allows you to remotely reactivate feed dispensing with an inexpensive walkie-talkie. Brad has asked the Instiute to test and evaluate his device, and we are in the midst of that work. Everything looks pretty good at this point, so stay tuned for our results. No topic causes more arguments in hunting camps than whether or not spiked yearlings are genetically inferior!

More than an hour long, it will answer even more questions about what makes big antlers. No topic generates more arguments in hunting camps than whether or not spiked yearlings are genetically inferior. Deer site. The Annual Archery Trades Association Show is a great place to meet with old friends to talk deer and history.

Don't let the tie fool you, Gordon is one of the best deer hunters in the Country! The two buddies have hunted all over the range during the last three decades. It was in the single digit temperatures when Dr. We enjoy this show so much because its a time to hang with old friends such as Gordon Whittington and Tom Miranda, comparing notes on filming challenges and experiences during the season.

It also is a time to discover new products and spent time at booths of Dr. Deer partners. We are proud to announce the Annual Dr. The event attracts over landowners, managers and deer hunters each year. Go to buckforage. Wayne Sitton, Director of Northern Operations, has added a special segment to the site click here , providing regular updates on what is happening up north. This is a must see and read, not only for those of you living and working up north, but anyone intersted in what is going on in the North Woods.

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Now that Christmas is behind us and we prepare for the New Year let's not forget about our deer herd and habitat. Unfortunatly, winters for them are not all that kind. So what can we do other than get mad and point fingers you might ask. Our northern clients work just as hard or harder from December to April as they do during the summer and are seeing great benefit from winter efforts.

If you are truly a serious deer manager then pay attention to what I am about to tell you. Cold weather is not necessarily what kills deer. So what do we do? Pretty simple actually, get out of the house and plow as many of your trails, and roads as you can so the deer can move around without burning up what little fat they have in reserve. Keeping your roads and trails cleared will not only allow deer to seek additional nutrition but will give them much needed excape routes in which to avoid predators. If you are fortunate enough to have pretty good food plots at this time of year, plow across them so the deer can have a little easier access to the remaining crop.

Timber managment is something you should be doing anyway and if properly done will aid greatly with winter nutrition by putting forage on the ground and keeping regeneration down in the "deers world" where they can reach it. Your spring plans should include efforts to improve or enhance areas that provide winter shelter. Finally and one that often ends in dispute is stress. We all enjoy the outdoors and like to take our kids and grandkids to the woods during the winter to snowmobile and do other winter activities.

While our deer are attempting to find nutrition, conserve fat and energy the last thing they need is a snowmobile screaming thru the middle of their house. I am certainly not saying stay off your property and not enjoy it in every way possible but be consious of your activities and try to reduce stress on the animals as much as possible during the winter months.

They are certainly not as attractive as a cold beer on a hot day sitting on a tractor bragging to our friends how much seed we got in the ground but I can assure you it is equally important. Until next time from the Dr. Be safe, be warm and get out and do something for your deer! Deer Inc. Our new video showing a necropsy autopsy of a buck that died from Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease is now available to members.

Go to the Members tab and then to Dr. Deer's Reading Room, then to Educational Videos. You will learn how to recognize the tell-tale signs of the disease in your deer. Warning: There are graphic images in this video. Kroll recently acquired a whitetail jawbone from southern Florida that has been estimated to be about a million years old. The jawbone was found in a Seminole midden and shows the signs of having been burned. Kroll, "but I can tell you with all authority the deer was 6.

Deer prepares to release the first online education module Aging and Judging White-tailed Deer. It is pest free. Swamp Chestnut Oak is a deciduous tree with a compact, rounded crown and a medium growth rate. It has chestnut-like foliage with rounded teeth along the margins.

Leaves are dark green above and grayish-green with a dense, felt-like pubescence below. Its bark resembles that of White Oak, with light gray, rough, flaky ridges. It produces large acorns, one to 1. Fall color is dull red to maroon. Water Oak is a fast-growing tree with a rounded crown. Leaves are alternate, obovate, often with a three-lobed apex.

The leaves are variable in size and shape, especially when young. Foliage persists late into fall and winter, especially during mild winters, making the tree semi-evergreen. It is considered by many to be a short-lived "weed tree" on upland sites and is a vigorous early succession tree in Zones 7 to 9. Water Oak transplants easily and is tolerant of a wide variety of soils and site conditions. It does well in full sun. The wood is weaker than that of most oak trees and is subject to limb breakage during ice or wind storms.

It also tends to retain numerous dead branches within its canopy. Southern New Jersey to Florida, west to eastern Texas and northward from the Mississippi valley to southeastern Missouri. Willow Oak is a deciduous tree with medium-fine texture and a medium growth rate. It has a handsome pyramidal form in youth, which becomes rounded to oval in maturity. The leaves are narrowly oblong or lanceolate, light green and shiny above and pale green below.

Young bark is dark gray and smooth, while mature bark has deep furrows and rough ridges. Inner bark is pink. Willow Oak can be used as a shade or specimen tree. It prefers moist, fertile soils but tolerates adverse sites relatively well. It has a shallow root system that will heave concrete, so avoid using it as a street tree. Chestnut Oak, also called Rock Oak or Rock Chestnut Oak, is a deciduous tree with medium-coarse texture and a medium growth rate. Form is irregular and open. Foliage is lustrous dark green above and lighter green underneath. Fall color ranges from yellow to orange-yellow.

Bark is gray and develops deep V-shaped ridges with age. Use Chestnut Oak as a shade or specimen tree. It prefers well-drained soils and full sun and has excellent drought tolerance once established. Pests are not a problem. Northern Red Oak is a deciduous tree with medium texture and a medium to fast growth rate. It develops a rounded crown with age. Leaves are alternate, oval or obovate, up to 8. They are lustrous green above and yellow-green below.

Fall color is usually yellow-brown but may be russet-red. Northern Red Oak is used as a large specimen shade tree. It transplants readily because of a negligible taproot. It needs acidic, sandy loam, well-drained soils and full sun for best development. Northern Red Oak tolerates dry conditions and urban sites. Shumard Oak is one of the largest of the southern red oaks. It develops a round, open crown, a buttressed trunk and a shallow root system.

Shumard Oak is used as a fast-growing shade or specimen tree. It is easily transplanted as a container-grown tree or balled-in-burlap tree. Post Oak is a medium-size tree with stout, spreading branches and a dense, rounded crown. Leaves are lustrous, dark green, rough on the upper surface and grayish-brown underneath. Bark is gray with shallow fissures and scaly ridges. Foliage turns golden-brown in fall. Post Oak is not usually planted as a landscape tree, but it would be a good choice for dry reclamation sites.

As a member of the White Oak sub-genus, it produces acorns every year and is a good food source for wildlife. Live Oak is an evergreen tree with medium-fine texture and a slow growth rate. It has a broad-spreading form with massive horizontal branches. It is a long-lived tree and a haven for resurrection fern and Spanish moss. The bark on older trees is almost black, develops a blocky appearance, and looks like alligator hide. Leaves are lustrous, dark green above and light green below. Old leaves drop in the spring as new leaves emerge. Use Live Oak as a specimen tree in large spaces.

Its evergreen foliage does not allow much sunlight beneath the canopy. It prefers sandy, moist, limestone soils and full sun for best development. It tends to grow poorly in Piedmont clays. Sandy, alkaline soils, including coastal dunes and ridges, near marshes and inland hammocks in the lower Coastal Plain. Also commonly found up to miles inland. It is a fixture along coastal areas as well as inland sites south of the fall line in Georgia and throughout Florida.

In terms of toughness, it is often the tree still standing after hurricanes. Leaves are two to three feet across, blue-green, palmate in shape, with a large notch in the middle. Thread-like strands of fiber hang off each leaf. In the wild, old leaf-stems, called boots, remain on the trunk in a criss-cross pattern, but they are often removed from trees in cultivated landscapes to give the trunk a smooth appearance.

Palmetto palm is sometimes used as a street tree, but it is used more often as a single specimen or in groupings in landscapes. A handsome and uniform grower, it lends a tropical look to the landscape. It is often planted at angles for added visual interest. Palmetto palm is very tolerant of salt spray, flooding and wind. Transplanting is most successful when done during the warm summer months. Southeastern coast from southern North Carolina to the northern panhandle of Florida.

North of Florida, the native range of this palm is restricted to coastal areas that are subject to salt spray and storms. It is also native to inland areas of the Florida peninsula as well as to the Bahamas. Bald Cypress is a deciduous tree with medium-fine texture and a medium to fast growth rate. Form is pyramidal when young sometimes narrow and becomes broader with age. In nature, older trees are flat-topped with few lower branches, which is probably due to competition for light. Its bark is reddish-brown, fibrous and attractive.

Bald Cypress produces "knees" vertical root extensions in swamps but not when grown in upland sites. Plant Bald Cypress as a specimen tree. It does well in the average home landscape, displaying good drought tolerance and adaptability to sandy or clay soils as well as wet and dry sites. It needs full sun and plenty of room. Bald Cypress grows too large for the average residential landscape. Eastern Hemlock is an evergreen tree, having a fine texture and a medium growth rate.

It has a graceful pyramidal growth form. Leaves needles are short, one-half to two-thirds inches long, lustrous, dark green above with two white bands beneath. They are arranged along the stems in two planes. Bark is a cinnamon-red color and becomes furrowed with age. Eastern Hemlock is used as a specimen or screening tree and for a windbreak. It is fairly easy to transplant and prefers moist, well-drained, acid soils and partial shade. Afternoon shade and irrigation during periods of limited rainfall are required to grow the plant successfully in the lower Piedmont.

It is subject to several pests, including the woolly adelgid, which has recently invaded the north Georgia mountains. Florida or Southern Sugar Maple is a deciduous tree of medium texture and a slow to medium growth rate. It has a rounded to spreading canopy that is more pyramidal in youth. It has few pest problems. The underside of the leaf is lighter than the upper side. The bark is smooth and gray. Fall color is variable, ranging from yellow to orange or rusty-red. It is not as vibrant as Sugar Maple. Considered a close relative of Sugar Maple Acer saccharum , Southern Sugar Maple is more tolerant of the high summer temperatures and humidity of Georgia than northern Sugar Maples.

(Really) Stunning Pictures and Photos

Southern Sugar Maple may be used as a shade, specimen or street tree. Plant it in acid soils with adequate moisture, because it is only moderately drought tolerant. It may require pruning in youth to obtain its best shape. Along stream banks and moist upland sites in the Piedmont and the Coastal Plain. It is commonly found along waterways. Downy Serviceberry is a deciduous, flowering tree with medium-fine texture, narrow-rounded crown and a medium growth rate. It blooms in early April with clusters of pendulous white flowers. Individual flowers are 1 inch in diameter with five narrow petals.

Summer fruit are berry-like, purplish-blue and edible by humans and birds. Fall color can be good and ranges from yellow to orange or rusty-red. The bark is a pleasing gray color. Use Downy Serviceberry as a flowering or specimen tree. It prefers well-drained, acid soils with adequate moisture, although it appears tolerant of many different sites, except wet soils. Plant it in full sun to light shade. American Hornbeam is a deciduous tree with medium texture and a slow to medium growth rate. It is usually single-stemmed with a spreading to rounded form.

It may occur as a multistemmed, bushy tree. An unusual feature is the smooth, hard branches and trunk, which acquire a muscle-like rippled Ironwood appearance with age. Use American Hornbeam as a specimen or street tree. It should be used much more in home landscapes. An understory tree, often occurring in wet areas, it appears to tolerate both excess moisture and moderate drought. It develops a pleasing shape without much pruning. Fall color is variable, ranging from yellow to orange or red. Eastern Redbud is a deciduous, flowering tree with a medium growth rate and coarse texture.

Form is oval to rounded. Grown primarily for the pink to rose-colored, pea-like blooms in March and April, Eastern Redbud is showy. The color conveys a warm feeling in the cool early spring. Use Eastern Redbud as a flowering or specimen tree. It occurs in moist soils as an understory tree, but it tolerates most landscape conditions and urban sites.

Plant or transplant young trees or container-grown plants because larger trees are difficult to transplant. Moderately acid pH is preferred. Eastern Redbud is becoming more popular in the nursery trade in the Deep South. Many cultivars are available with variations in flower color from white to deep rose. It re-seeds readily in cultivated areas. Fringetree is a deciduous, flowering tree with medium texture and a slow growth rate. Rounded in form, it is grown mostly for its showy flowers in May to June.

They give the tree a fleecy appearance. Fruit are dark blue, 0. Fruit appear on female trees only. Use Fringetree as a flowering specimen tree. It adapts to most sites, including moderately dry sites. It is vigorous when young, then grows slower with age. It does better with good cultural practices, including fertilization, watering and mulching. This tree is dioecious, having male staminate and female pistillate flowers on separate plants.

Flowering Dogwood, the most popular flowering tree in the eastern United States, is deciduous with medium texture and a medium growth rate. It bears white, pink or rose-colored blooms from March to April. In fall, leaves turn scarlet red, and fruit are red and showy. Bark is dark and mottled. Seedling dogwoods are often planted in woodland landscapes. Use Dogwood as a flowering understory tree. It prefers light shade and adequate moisture during dry weather. Never plant it on wet sites. Mulch to keep roots cool in summer and warm in winter. Powdery mildew and leaf spot anthracnose can be problems.

Numerous cultivars exist, including some with variegated foliage. Dogwood fruit are a favorite of birds and other wildlife. Deer browse the leaves. Mayhaw is a thorny, deciduous, small tree with white flowers borne in a flat cluster in March. The fruit are round, 0. Bark is scaly and mottled. Parsley Hawthorn is a deciduous, flowering tree with medium-fine texture, thorny branches and a slow growth rate.

White flowers with showy purple anthers are borne in clusters in March and April. Fruit are 0. Leaves are unique in that they resemble the foliage of parsley. Parsley Hawthorn is an understory tree that prefers moist soils in light shade or full sun. Use it as a specimen tree. All hawthorns provide fruit for birds in the fall and are preferred nesting trees in spring. Lacebugs can be a problem. Washington Hawthorn is a thorny, deciduous, small tree with a broadly oval to rounded dense shape. The foliage is reddish as it emerges, changing to a dark, lustrous green.

The leaves are triangular-ovate, coarsely toothed and deeply lobed. The half-inch white flowers bloom in clusters after the leaves emerge, with pink anthers on numerous stamens. Washington Hawthorn makes an excellent small specimen tree, screen or hedge near buildings, provided it isn't used in high-traffic areas because of its thorns. The fall color varies from orange to scarlet to purple. The bright red fruit display is an outstanding feature. Riverbanks and low, moist woods from the mountains to the upper Coastal Plain; may not be as vigorous in the southern part of its range.

There are cultivars available. All hawthorns are valuable to wildlife by providing fruit and nesting sites. Carolina Buckthorn is a small, deciduous tree. Leaves are simple, alternate, elliptic to oblong, 4 to 6 inches long, with parallel veins extending from a prominent midrib. The small, white flowers appear after the leaves in clusters at the leaf axils.

Fruit are berry-like drupes, changing from red to black. Carolina Buckthorn is an attractive tree with slender branches and an open crown. It is quite handsome in fruit and is an excellent specimen understory tree. However, it may have a tendency to reseed itself and become weedy. It prefers partial shade. Fertile soils of deciduous forests. It is frequently associated with limestone soils, such as shell middens and calcareous bluffs.

Loblolly Bay is an evergreen tree with medium texture and a medium growth rate, having a narrow, pyramidal to oval shape. Leaves are smooth, dark green and have blunt appressed teeth. Summer flowers are white, 2. Fruit are woody capsules. Use Loblolly Bay as a screening or specimen flowering tree.

It prefers moist, fertile, well-drained soil, and sun to light shade. Bays, low hammocks, acidic, peaty soils in and around pocosins. Also found on sand hills in association with various hardwoods and conifers. However, it is smaller and produces fewer flowers than Carolina Silverbell. Its white flower petals are united at the base. Carolina Silverbell, in contrast, has flower petals that are united for more than half their length. Bark is gray-brown and lacks white streaks common on Carolina Silverbell. Fruit are a greenish color. Fall color is pleasant yellow. Carolina Silverbell is a deciduous tree with medium-coarse texture and a medium growth rate.

It has an upright-oval to broad-rounded form. Subtly, but not explosively showy, its best ornamental features are the clusters of white, bell-shaped flowers borne from April to early May. Bark is shallowly ridged with white streaks. Fruit are four-winged capsules approximately 1. Fall color is yellow to yellow-green. Use Carolina Silverbell as a flowering or specimen tree. It prefers rich, moist, well-drained, acidic soil and sun to partial shade.

Although it naturally occurs as an understory tree, it has shown good drought tolerance in full sun. It seems to transplant well. Wooded hillsides and along stream banks. It is occasionally found along waterways in the upper Coastal Plain. Possumhaw is a deciduous tree with medium-fine texture and a medium to slow growth rate. Form is round at maturity. Possumhaw is grown mostly for its shiny red fall berries, which are consumed by wildlife.

The leaves turn a bright yellow in fall. It is similar in fruiting habit to Yaupon Holly I. Use Possumhaw as a specimen tree in the shrub border or at the woodland edge. It prefers moist soils in full sun to partial shade. It transplants readily and has fair drought tolerance.

It tends to be multi-stemmed but can be easily pruned into a tree shape. Moist soils in low woods and lower slopes in woods and thickets from the lower Piedmont to the southern Coastal Plain. All hollies are dioecious, having male and female flowers on separate plants.

Possumhaw is a good wildlife plant. There are several cultivars in the nursery trade. Yaupon Holly is a broadleaf evergreen tree with medium-fine texture and a fast growth rate. It has a graceful, attractive, irregular form; sometimes rounded, other times pyramidal. It tends to be multi-stemmed, but it can be easily pruned into a tree form. The bark is smooth gray. Shiny red fruit provide a brilliant display in fall until they are consumed by birds. Fruit only occurs on female plants. Use Yaupon Holly as a specimen tree or hedge for screening.

It is commonly used in landscapes because of its adaptability to a wide variety of sites, including sun or shade, wet and dry sites, and both acidic and alkaline soils. It is prone to ice and storm damage. Big-Leaf Magnolia is a deciduous, flowering tree having coarse texture, a round-headed form, and a medium growth rate. Unusually large leaves are 20 to 30 inches long and 8 to 12 inches wide. Large, white, fragrant flowers are borne from May to June and have six petals 8 to 12 inches across. Its egg-shaped, cone-like fruit and red seeds are typical of Magnolias.

Use Big-Leaf Magnolia as a specimen tree. Because of its extremely large leaves, it becomes a focal point wherever it is grown. It is a temperamental tree, often difficult to establish, requiring rich, moist soils and partial shade. Avoid planting it in exposed locations because the large leaves are easily torn by wind. Leaf litter may be a problem. Moist soils of valleys and ravines.

It is sporadically found in the Piedmont, especially in the Chattahoochee drainage area and in hilly sections of the western Coastal Plain. Often found as an understory tree. Narrow-Leaf Crabapple is a deciduous, flowering tree with medium texture and a medium growth rate. The crown is broad, rounded and spreading.

While not as showy as named cultivars, it is an attractive flowering tree when in bloom. Flowers are pink, 1. Flowering time varies from late February in south Georgia to mid April in north Georgia. Fruit are yellow-green, approximately 1. Use Narrow-Leaf Crabapple as a specimen flowering tree in full sun. It prefers moist soils but has moderate drought tolerance. This tree has not been used in landscapes, so its full site tolerance is not known. Avoid wet sites. It shows better disease tolerance than most cultivated varieties under Georgia conditions.

Ogeechee Lime is a deciduous tree with medium texture and a medium growth rate. Oval, red fruit mature in fall. They are very sour and have been used as a substitute for limes or in making tart preserves and jellies. Form is variable. Fall color also is variable, ranging from yellow to red. This plant is named for the Ogeechee River, where it is commonly found. Use Ogeechee Lime as a specimen or small-scale street tree.

It occurs naturally in wet areas but shows good drought tolerance. It prefers acid soils and full sun to partial shade. Provide irrigation on sunny sites. Fruit can be eaten by humans and wildlife. The tree is a honey source for bees. Reported to be rare, but it is fairly common in south central Georgia. Wild Olive is a small evergreen tree with medium texture and a medium to slow growth rate. Form is oval to round. White flowers, borne in spring, are small, fragrant and bell-shaped.

The fruit are purple and olive-like.

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Wild Olive is useful in a naturalized landscape or as a foundation specimen. It displays good drought tolerance if planted in moist, well-drained soils. It establishes moderately well after planting. Moist soils of river valleys to shady uplands and dunes in the understory of Coastal Plain forests. Eastern Hophornbeam is a deciduous tree with medium texture and a slow growth rate. It is rounded in outline with horizontal or drooping branches. It occurs as an understory tree on uphill sites having moist, well-drained, acid soils.

Fall leaf color is yellow. Leaves remain on the tree throughout the winter. This is a handsome tree with few pest problems. The fruit are reminiscent of hops, hence the common name. The gray-brown bark is somewhat shaggy, looking like a cat scratching post. Eastern Hophornbeam is best planted as an understory tree in partial to full shade and moist soils. It has moderate drought tolerance but is slow to establish on dry sites. It is not tolerant of wet sites.

The "hops," or inflated bracts that enclose the seed, are irritating to the skin if handled. It is a useful wildlife tree. It is sometimes infected by a fungus that causes witches broom. Sourwood is a deciduous, flowering tree with an oval form, medium texture and a medium to slow growth rate.

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Flowers are white, urn-shaped, 0. The flowers make a showy display when nothing else is blooming. Fall color is pink to red or red-purple. Bark is grayish-brown-black, blocky and attractive as the tree ages. Sourwood is an all-season ornamental that grows more beautiful with age. It is best planted as a young tree or from a container plant because it is difficult to transplant as a large tree.

Sourwood needs moist soils with good drainage and sun to partial shade. It has moderate drought tolerance. As Sourwood ages in the understory, it can develop picturesque shapes in its quest for light. Well-drained, gravelly soils on ridges and on upland slopes. It is found mostly in the mountains and Piedmont and occasionally in the Coastal Plain of the Southeast.

Red Bay is a small evergreen tree with medium-coarse texture, medium growth rate and an upright-oval form. The foliage is aromatic when crushed and can be used as a substitute for bay leaves in cooking. Flowers are about 0. In shaded areas in its natural habitat, the leaves tend to be infected with a gall, which makes them look swollen and watery. Plants not growing in a swamp do not have this problem. A beautiful specimen can be seen next to the famous arch on the University of Georgia's Athens campus.

Ambrosia beetle and an associated fungus are killing native populations in coastal Georgia. Cherry Laurel is an evergreen tree with medium texture and a medium to fast growth rate. Fruit are berry-like, borne in clusters, green when young and turning black in fall. Foliage has a cherry-like odor when crushed. Cherry Laurel can be used as a specimen tree or screen plant. It prefers moist, well-drained soils and full sun to partial shade. However, it adapts to a wide variety of landscape sites. Re-seeding can be a problem in flower beds. The species is not landscape quality, but there are a number of improved cultivars that are landscape quality in the trade.

A small, deciduous oak associated with rocky soil, granite outcrops and dry slopes in the Piedmont. It has a compact crown and a slow growth rate. Some trees have a single trunk while others are multi-stemmed. Leaves have three to six lobes and are shiny on the upper surface, pale on the lower surface and resemble miniature Red Oak leaves.

Leaf size is smaller than the large oaks, befitting its small tree status. Leaves turn bright red in fall. Georgia Oak is being used as a street tree or specimen tree and under power lines in the Georgia Piedmont. Found on granite outcrops. Turkey Oak is a distinctive, small, deciduous tree with crooked branches.

Some trees grow as multi-stemmed shrubs. Its three-lobed leaves are thought to resemble a turkey foot, hence the common name. Turkey Oak's red fall color brightens the landscape of the sandhills. Use Turkey Oak as a specimen understory tree. Its picturesque branching, glossy foliage, attractive fall color and dark, blocky-patterned bark add interest to landscapes. These species are well adapted to drought stress and fire. Sassafras is a deciduous tree with medium texture and a medium growth rate. Leaves are 3 to 7 inches long and 2 to 4 inches wide.

Leaves vary in shape from unlobed oval to two-lobed mitten-shaped or three-lobed. Fall color ranges from bright yellow to fiery orange or vibrant red. Its ridged, reddish-brown bark and picturesque branching make an interesting winter silhouette. Yellow flowers appear in terminal racemes in late March, before the leaves emerge. It commonly occurs along fence rows in poor, dry soils.

Use Sassafras as a specimen tree. Older trees are difficult to transplant because they have a tap root and sparse lateral roots. It is a tough plant, preferring moist, acid soils and full sun to partial shade. Disturbed sites, particularly acid, rocky soils of uplands. It is often found in old fields where it is a pioneer species throughout the South.

Occurs in forest openings and along fence rows. Plants tend to spread from suckers. During fall migration, birds eat the seeds quickly. Crushed dry leaves are used for flavoring gumbos. It is prone to dieback in south Georgia. This small deciduous tree or shrub seldom grows over 20 feet tall and often has short, twisted stems. Leaves are alternate, elliptical to lance-shaped, with an acute tip. They are conspicuously veined on both surfaces. When bruised, the leaves emit a fetid odor. Twigs are reddish-brown to gray, with 0. The twigs are pubescent in youth and become smooth with age.

Sap is milky. Clusters of white flowers arise from the leaf axils in early summer. The drupe-like berry is purple-black, appearing in fall. Buckthorn Bully is an attractive small tree that should be used for naturalizing in wildlife habitats. It is especially attractive when flowers are present. A variety of sites along the borders of streams and sandy soils of the Coastal Plain. It is also a hardwood understory tree on slopes and upland sites in the Piedmont.

Bigleaf Snowbell is a small deciduous tree, normally single-stemmed, with fragrant, white flowers, 0. The flowers occur in racemes, 4 to 8 inches long, in May and June. The leaves are dark green above with pubescence beneath and have no noticeable color change in the fall. Bigleaf Snowbell is not used very much because it is rare in the nursery trade. It can be confused with American Snowbell Styrax americanus , a multi-stemmed and smaller shrub that bears flowers from leaf axils, not in racemes and grows mainly along sandy stream banks in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont.

Bottlebrush Buckeye is a graceful, deciduous shrub. Leaves are palmate with five to seven leaflets. Many small, white flowers are borne in May and June on upright, cylindrical inflorescences, 8 to 12 inches long. They give the appearance of white "bottlebrushes" hovering above the plant. Fall color typically is yellow under the right environmental conditions. Fruit are capsules approximately 1.

As plants age, new plants arise from the roots and the plants spread outward. Bottlebrush Buckeye is a flowering shrub useful as a single specimen or in shrub borders. It is a broad, spreading, multi-stemmed plant with many upright shoots, so it requires plenty of room in the landscape. It prefers fertile, acid, moist soils and partial shade, and it does not like hot, dry locations. Rejuvenate with heavy pruning in late winter. Red Buckeye is a clump-forming, roundtopped, deciduous flowering shrub or small tree.

The lustrous, dark green, palmate leaves have five leaflets. Scarlet flowers are borne in panicles 4 to 8 inches long and 2 to 3 inches wide in March and April. Fruit are capsules approximately 2 inches long, bearing one or two lustrous brown seeds. Red Buckeye is an attractive spring-flowering shrub useful in woodland settings where it gets filtered shade and moist conditions.

It flowers well in dense shade.

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It loses its leaves early, often by late September. Scarlet, tubular flowers with protruding stamens are pollinated by ruby-throated hummingbirds. Supports hummingbird spring migration. There are selections of this plant, but they are not readily available. Painted Buckeye is a large shrub or small tree.

The leaves emerge early, in March, and vary from green to reddish-purple. Leaves are palmate, with five leaflets, each 4 to 6 inches long. The flowers male and bisexual occur together in 4- to 8-inch panicles in March and May. Flower color is extremely variable and ranges from yellow-green to creamy yellow or varying shades of pink. The smooth, leathery capsule contains one to three shiny, dark-brown seeds. Fruit set is normally minimal.

Painted Buckeye prefers rich, moist soil in partial shade. It can be used as a specimen or in a grouping for naturalizing in moist woods. Rich woods and bottomlands of the Piedmont. Found on gentle slopes under oak, hickory and maple trees. Fetterbush is a tall, multi-stemmed evergreen shrub with arching branches and bright green leaves. Flowers are small, fragrant, cream-colored, and urn-shaped, appearing in May and June. Fruit is a dry brown capsule. Fetterbush can be used as a specimen plant, to screen patios or yards, or to soften the corners of structures.

Its arching habit and evergreen foliage add a wonderful year-round texture to the landscape. It can be pruned into a tree form or shaped as a hedge. It grows best in moist, well-drained soil in dappled shade or morning sun, but it tolerates full shade. For best appearance, remove old stems with regular pruning. Leaves are alternate, bipinnately compound, and 3 to 4 feet long. Stems are thorny. White flowers in July and August are arranged in terminal panicles and give the plant a lacy appearance. It seldom branches but forms colonies from root suckers. Fruits turn pinkish-purple and are showy for several months in late summer and fall.

Fall leaf color is variable, from yellow to maroon or purple. It grows best in moist, high organic soils in full sun to light shade. It is easy to transplant when young. Southern Pennsylvania, southern Indiana and eastern Iowa, south to Florida and west to eastern Texas. Suckers arising from the roots can be a maintenance problem if roots are disturbed. Fruit are a favorite food for migrating birds in fall. Groundsel Bush is an evergreen to semi-evergreen flowering shrub. It spreads via suckers arising from the roots. It has an irregular oval form with upright branching.

Flowers are indistinct, but seeds look like tiny white paint brushes and are quite showy in late summer. Use Groundsel Bush as a specimen plant or in a shrub border. It is tolerant of a wide variety of sites and is salt tolerant. American Beautyberry is a deciduous shrub with coarse texture and medium to fast growth rate. It has an irregular, spreading, loosely branched, upright growth habit. Light pink to lavender flowers borne from June to August are not showy, but the intense color of the purple fruit clustered around the stems in fall makes a dramatic display.

American Beautyberry is a great accent in the shrub border. It will grow in most soils and prefers full sun for best fruit production. It is adaptable to a wide variety of sites. The coarse-textured leaves and showy fruit make this species desirable for naturalistic settings or mixed shrub borders. Plant in groups of three, five or seven for a dramatic statement. Sweetshrub is a deciduous, flowering shrub with medium texture, medium growth rate and an upright oval to mounding form. It tends to form colonies by spreading outward from the mother plant.

Foliage is aromatic when crushed. Flowers, borne in April and May, are highly fragrant, with a clove-like aroma. Fall color is yellow. Use Sweetshrub as a specimen plant or in groups within a shrub border or woodland setting. It is a nice choice for a fragrance garden. It prefers moist, fertile soils in full sun to partial shade, but it is moderately tolerant of adverse conditions. Found in fertile woodlands along sandy streams and hillsides. Grows in acid soils in the Southeast, predominantly in the Piedmont and mountains. Button Bush is a deciduous, flowering shrub with medium texture and a medium growth rate.

It has an open, rounded form with spreading branches. The flowers are round, 1 to 2 inches in diameter, and are fragrant. The flowers look like creamy-white balls covered with fiber optic tubes. They appear from June to August. Fruit are hard, round, reddish-brown capsules containing two to four nutlets. This is an unusual-looking plant in flower and fruit. Use Buttonbush as a specimen plant or in group plantings adjacent to ponds and streams, or in other moist areas.

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It prefers full sun and moist to wet soils. Cut the plant back heavily every few years to rejuvenate because young stems are the most attractive. Also found in southern New Mexico and southern California. Summersweet Clethra is a deciduous, colony-forming shrub. Leaves are alternate, oblong, 2 to 4 inches long and 1 to 2 inches wide, and sharply serrated along the margins. Flowers are fragrant, white to whitish-pink, and are borne in erect terminal clusters from late June through August.

Fruit are small, brown capsules. Summersweet Clethra is an excellent plant for moist areas and almost any soil type. It will grow in full sun to partial shade. Avoid planting it in drought-prone sites. Black Titi, or Buckwheat Tree, is an evergreen, multi-stemmed, flowering shrub or small tree with medium-fine texture and a medium-slow growth rate. Its form is oval to round. Leaves are leathery, thick and glossy, dark green above and a pale, chalky green below. The bark is dark and scaly. Fragrant white to whitish-pink flowers are borne in early March in terminal clusters 3 inches long.

Fruit is a winged, corky drupe, closely resembling buckwheat. The foliage turns reddish-scarlet in winter. Use Black Titi for screening or as a specimen flowering plant. Because it is attractive to bees when flowering, it may be best to plant it away from the public. It prefers moist, acid soils high in organic matter and full sun to light shade.

Occurs in areas that are wet during winter months. It is usually found growing with members of the heath family ericaceous plants. Red Basil is a small, semi-evergreen shrub with aromatic leaves.

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Flowers are tubular, brilliant scarlet, and are borne from late summer into fall. It is a striking plant in bloom. Habit is loose, open and erect. Red Basil should be planted on sandhills or sand ridges of the Coastal Plain. It prefers dry sites. Georgia Basil is a low, loosely sprawling, freely branched, semi-evergreen shrub. The leaves are opposite and aromatic. Tubular pink to lavender flowers are borne from August to October. Georgia Basil is a good landscape plant for dry soils in full sun.

It also naturalizes in deciduous woods as a ground cover in rocky, shaded areas. It often is found growing naturally where little else can survive. Shows potential for naturalizing on harsh, dry sites. It tends to naturalize in situations that suit it, and it reseeds prolifically. It can easily be pruned back to about half its size. Deer shun its aromatic foliage. Littlehip Hawthorn is a large shrub or small, deciduous tree. White flowers in a flat cluster emerge from the leaf axils in spring.

Individual fruit are 0. Bark exfoliates with age, exposing an orange-gray-brown inner bark. Red Titi is a large shrub or small tree with medium texture and medium growth rate.