This medieval tradition of commentaries on Ovid was brought to Italy in by Giovanni Del Virgilio, a schoolmaster from Bologna, who based his Latin Allegorie librorum Ovidii Metamorphoseos prosaice ac metrice compilate on earlier medieval comments. This change had already taken place in the twelfth century commentary of Arnulph of Orleans.
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Orpheus is portrayed in a very positive way: he was a wise and eloquent man that lost his profound judgement Eurydice. The devil i. But after his death Orpheus was reunited with Eurydice, and thus the spirit found the mind again. From a moral point of view we should see Orpheus as a man of good reputation. When Orpheus is dead and his limbs are scattered around, a snake tries to eat his head, but is stopped by Apollo. According to Bonsignori, this means that a good reputation always prevails over envious people.
At the end of the fifteenth century, printers started to publish Latin editions of Ovid, as well as translations. The Latin editions show that there was a need for original texts that could be studied by humanists. They were mostly printed with the grammatical comments of Raffaele Regio Raphael Regius. The general public who were interested in mythological heroes, but also artists who wanted to depict them, were in need of mythological treatises in order to find out more information.
Since this translation lost its importance after the invention of printing, I will not discuss it in this article. The second of these sources, the Fabula di Orfeo ca. For the first time in the history of Orpheus in Italian literature Poliziano turned to the classical texts of Virgil and Ovid themselves.
Eurydice , man fails and even lowers himself to homosexuality, and in the end he dies a terrible death. Agostini however, ignores these negative connotations of the Orpheus myth by combining these sources with the more positive allegories of Bonsignori. Thus, from until Orpheus was interpreted again and again in the same allegorical way in editions of the Metamorphoses; with positive connotations.
Storia e metastoria, ed. Mario Martelli Lecce: Conte, In he presents a free translation of the Metamorphoses, again without allegorical comments. As a homosexual Orpheus could keep his promise to Eurydice, and at the same time elevate his soul to a higher level. According to platonic philosophy this higher level could be attained by love. On one hand, he was a famous mythological musician, who suffered a tragic loss. But on the other hand, he had looked back at Eurydice coming from hell, which could be interpreted allegorically as a return to wordly pleasures, and he had turned to homosexuality.
Thus, interpretations of the Orpheus myth alternate between praising and condemnation. Although these literal translations do not offer allegorical explanations in the text, they had to be interpreted allegorically by the reader. I find it very unlikely that Spirito began his translation in the middle of the story of Orpheus, and therefore I assume that the first part of the manuscript was lost and, as a consequence, was not printed either.
Underneath the myths the reader could find a philosophical truth. Counter-Reformation and Allegory Although the first editions of Dolce and Anguillara were published without allegorical explanations, these explanations were added in later editions. These additions were probably caused by the Counter- Reformation and the Council of Trent, which was held from until In this way, ancient literature and mythology, in which even most clerics were educated, could still be read and used.
Dolce or his editor only inserted a brief allegory in the sixth edition that emphasises his negative attitude towards Orpheus. Orpheus represents the state of mind that loses reason and turns back to follow despicable earthly things. Apparently the publishers of Anguillara were in a hurry to add an allegorical interpretation to the text.
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Orpheus is a prudent man, who symbolises eloquence that has civilised humankind. Saggi sulla tradizione ovidiana nel Rinascimento, ed. From Text to Image: the Woodcuts If we study the images in the printed editions of the Metamorphoses, we notice that these too keep going back to earlier examples. The first edition of Ovid with woodcuts was the edition of Bonsignori, where the myth of Orpheus is illustrated with three images. Although this scene is hardly mentioned by Ovid, it had become a topos in the Orpheus iconography Fig.
This was mainly due to the fourteenth-century mythological and iconographical treatise De deorum imaginibus libellus, that had an enormous influence on artists and in which the scene of Orpheus and the animals figured prominently. The woodcut could thus be inspired directly by the translation itself, but it seems more likely that it was inspired by a representation of the same scene by Andrea Mantegna.
Pointedly in this manuscript illustration Eurydice is pursued by Aristaeus, as opposed to the woodcut. Charon is missing, too. This might indicate that the wood-engraver based his work on a Latin text as well. Mann, , The Metamorphosis of Orpheus had depicted the death of Orpheus in the Camera degli Sposi in Mantua, probably also made a drawing or an engraving of the same subject which was copied in other drawings and engravings.
Moreover, they were also used for other editions of the Metamorphoses, like the Latin editions by Raffaele Regio beginning from All texts—Latin and popular adaptations—kept going back to the same images, that depended on classical and medieval sources. In the same way, in the texts themselves new interpretations and new literal translations kept going back to medieval allegorical comments. Although they show many stylistic differences, from a thematical point of view the images are much alike.
The only remarkable difference is that Orpheus is not represented seated on the ground, but playing his lira while standing Figs. On the whole we could say that whatever changes are made in the text, be it a positive or a negative approach to Orpheus or the addition of allegorical comments, these changes did not affect the woodcuts.
But please don't expect another "Inferno" or you will be disappointed. That should not, however, dissuade you from checking out this album. I don't think I ever officially rated their other 2 albums. I'd rate "Inferno" as a 4. For Purgatorio, a step up and a 3. With more listens as I plan to , I could be persuaded to change my rating to a 4. It already went up from a 3 to a 3. The album cover is pretty cool too on this one. Three stars. The band formed way back in and was originally part of the late 60s beatnik scene before heading into the realms of progressive rock and on this debut album can be heard some of the remnants of their pop years which in all honesty makes this album a little tame in comparison to the other bands of the period.
Many of the bands prog elements are in play here. This is first and foremost a classically keyboard album focusing on the playing of Enrico Olivieri who delivers nice hooks and pleasing melodies accompanied by the operatic vocal approach of Jimmy Spitaleri. For an RPI album of this is pretty weak. At this point the band hadn't stepped too far beyond the 60s and the songs are very boring compared to the explosion of creativity all around them. What we get is simple song structures that never really develop into much of interest.
The melodies are pretty straight forward and there are literally no surprises like on "Inferno. After coming to this one after "Inferno" i was way underwhelmed.
While nothing on here is bad by any means, nothing is memorable either. This is Italian pop rock that has a just a bit of prog lite that leaves me unsatisfied. Luckily they would step it up big time for their followup. This Progressive rock album is very interesting and good. Even if the songs are a bit short but with a powerful rhythm section with good Guitar parts with classical passages and passages of flute and baroquisms and symphonic parts by Organ and Moog and the powerful charismatic voice of the singer and all that makes this album pretty original.
The band Metamorfosi and the album has the typical arrangements and atmospheres of the symphonic Italian Progressive but also with the Psychedelic vibes of the early seventies especially influenced by rock musicals of ''Jesus Christ Superstar'' and also how are written the lyrics and cover images of the album. E Fu il Sesto Giorno, it's a good original Progressive album and that anticipates as an introduction what will be their second album.
In the same year , Metamorfosi make another album, this time inspired to a poetic and literary work to the epic poem Sommo Poeta Dante Alighieri and the greatest works literature the Divine Comedy La Divina Commedia focused on the part of Inferno. Metamorfosi,Inferno,, but this is another story Review by apps79 Special Collaborator Honorary Collaborator. A pleasant comeback with an updated but still deeply symphonic sound, strong operatic elements and Spilateri's voice in excellent shape rewards the listener with a surprising good album by a band that sounds as much inspired as during their 70's stint.
As with ''Inferno'', the third work of Metamorfosi is divided in short pieces, all tightly connected to each other to form a long, epic work of Symphonic Rock, based on Dante's writings. The sound is heavily driven by Olivieri's monumental work on keyboards with epic synthesizer flights and plenty of romantic piano preludes, while there are also lots of choir parts in the album to complete pieces of pure Classical Music influence in a rock vein.
As a result, ''Paradiso'' passes from delicate and emotional moments some with an acoustic vibe to cinematic, highly symphonic textures with a decent space for instrumental themes and even some darker parts in the process. Spilateri's voice is flawless: very emotional, very clean and extremely theatrical. Maybe the band should have used the analog keyboards a bit more, but still it is should be mentioned that the album flows in an amazing coherence with hardly any ''dead'' minutes.
Metamorfosi continued their occasional live appearances every now and then and one of them, following the release of ''Paradiso'', marked the first live album of the group, captured on December 24th, at Chiesa di S. Galla in Rome, but only released in on Suono Records under the dreamy title ''La Chiesa delle stelle''. A welcome return full of operatic, warm and atmospheric moments of elegance.
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Strongly recommended Vocalist Jimmy Spitaleri is the first thing you notice about this band. His stately, majestic delivery with its distinctive vibrato has as many detractors as fans.
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I tend to like it, but I suppose it is an acquired taste. His voice pairs nicely with Enrico Oliveri's keyboard talent, as fully demonstrated on "Il Sesto Giorno. E Lui Amava I Fiori" could be classified as cookie-cutter; the more traditional song-based track isn't necessarily psych but a bit closer to proto-prog. The Mothers-of-Invention-inspired background vocals crack me up but they're kind of cute and endearing.
You have to try really hard to hate this band. The longest song on the album, "Crepuscolo" plods along and meanders its way through a variety of parts and pieces. Again, nothing terribly progressive here despite the length, but somehow you just "know" it's "prog" if that makes sense. The melodic "Hiroshima" is enjoyable if somewhat forgettable. This theme continues on "Nuova Luce," the most beat-pop track here and a skippable one in my opinion. The superior "Sogno E Realta" foreshadows the material Metamorfosi will later develop on Inferno, as a mysterious organ and bass pattern set the foundation for Spitaleri's slithering vocal.
With their history of both light and shade, the two ships were in effect a representation of the Italy of those years and whoever set foot on board could, immediately discern the soul of the nation. Together with the already mentioned architects, the most notable artists of the time worked on the ships: abstract artists such as Capogrossi, Ridolfi, Corpora, Turcato, Baldan, Santomaso, Alfieri; neo-surrealists such as Severini, Sciltian, Dova, Pirandello; the figuratives Mascherini, Seibezzi, Cadorin, Leonor Fini, Gentilini, Omiccioli, Maccari…….
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Public rooms, cabins and even the crew areas were studded with a mass of artworks well attuned to the internal architecture: about on the Michelangelo and on the Raffaello, sufficient to warrant a museum-like catalogue of the works on board. Television became the obsession of the Italians, telling of John F. We looked also to the skies and the moon. Among the luminaries of this new world were Yuri Gagarin and Neil Armstrong.
Television and cinema embarked on the Italia flagships. It was the swan song, all-consuming but inexorable, of a world which was destined to disappear. An era was coming to an end with light-hearted cruises and fearsome storms. I n , when construction of the Michelangelo and Raffaello began, Alitalia inaugurated the first service linking Italy and the United States by the new DC8 jumbo jet. Already, by , the worldwide public had made its preference clear for the airliner rather than the ocean liner; and quickly a significant number of Italians came to prefer a crossing to New York in 8 hours on a jet rather than in 8 days on a ship.
At the very time when the Michelangelo and Raffaello entered service, the passenger traffic by sea was already crumbling, not least because the cost of an air ticket was less. The oil crisis of delivered the coup de grace to the two liners, which were among the most costly not only to operate but also to transform into cruise ships. In , after just ten years of fleeting glory, they were laid up side by side in the Bay of Portovenere, close to the voracious shipbreaking yards of La Spezia, which had made their fortune by dismantling so many passenger ships.
The destiny of the two flagships seemed to be ordained: to be cut into pieces and dispatched to be melted down for less noble but more practical and profitable purposes. Fate, however, decreed otherwise. The Michelangelo and Raffaello eventually became part of a commercial deal with the Iranian government and made their final voyage to the Persian Gulf where, for some years, they were employed as floating barracks.
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It was thanks to a man from Monfalcone, Egone Missio, a retired director of the shipyard who was acting as consultant to the Home Lines, that the contract was awarded to Monfalcone. The ship entered service in and would continue to sail until without ever changing her name. For almost half a century, the Oceanic was for the North American public the epitome of excellence in Caribbean cruising, so much so that the Bahamas would dedicate a commemorative stamp to this wonderful ship.
After Oceanic, the Monfalcone yard would produce another historic vessel, the Eugenio C. This aerial photograph depicts the modernisation project of the establishment, which involved the substitution of the slipways with the current construction dock and, at its head, the prefabrication facilities for building the blocks of which a ship is now formed. At the west quay we see the Oceanic and the Sandalion; and, at the east quay, Guglielmo Marconi, the final passenger ship of the Lloyd Triestino which would be delivered on 30 October The Eugenio C.
In the two decades which separated the building of the Eugenio C. At the end of this temporary phase, Monfalcone turned to establishing itself as the prime builder of cruise ships of the latest generation. She was the first ship to emerge from the new building dock. The photograph shows her being floated out from the building dock on 4 March On the left can be seen the first sections of the sister ship Fecia di Cossato seen below, during her sea trials.
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